Kamis, 19 Mei 2011

tugas jarkom 3


Lab 5.1.13b Building a Switch-based Network
Objective
•Create a simple network with two PCs using a switch
•Identify the proper cable to connect the PCs to the switch
•Configure workstation IP address information
•Test connectivity using thepingcommand
Background / Preparation
This lab focuses on the ability to connect two PCs to create a simple switch-based Ethernet LANusing two workstations. A switch is a networking concentration device sometimes referred to as a multiport bridge. Switches are relatively inexpensive and easy to install. When operating in full-duplex mode, they provide dedicated bandwidth to workstations. Switches eliminate collisions bycreating microsegments between ports to which the two workstations are attached. They are appropriate for small to large LANs with moderate to heavy traffic. In addition to the physical and data link connections, which are Layers 1 and 2, the computers must also be configured with the correct IP network settings, which is Layer 3, so that they can communicate. Since this lab uses a switch, a basic Category 5/5e UTP straight-through cable is needed to connect each PC to the switch. This is referred to as a patch cable or horizontal cabling, which is used to connect workstations and a typical LAN. Start this lab with the equipment turned off and with cabling disconnected. Work in teams of two with one person per PC.
The following resources will be required:
•Two workstations with an Ethernet 10/100 NIC installed
•Ethernet 10BaseT or Fast Ethernet switch
•Several Ethernet cables, which are straight-through and crossover, to choose from for connecting the two workstations

Step 1 Identify the proper Ethernet cable and connect the two PCs to the switch
a.  The connection between the two PCs and the switch will be accomplished using a Category 5 or 5e straight-through patch cable. Locate two cables that are long enough to reach from each PC to the switch. Attach one end to the NIC and the other end to a port on the switch. Be sure to examine the cable ends carefully and select only a straight-through cable.
b.  What kind of cable is required to connect from NIC to switch? Straight-through
c.  What is the category rating of the cable? 5 or 5e
d.  What is the AWG wire size designation of the cable? 22 AWG
Step 2 Verify the physical connection
a.  Plug in and turn on the computers. To verify the computer connections, insure that the link lights on the both PC NICs and the switch interfaces are lit.
Are all link lights lit? They should be otherwise troubleshoot.
Step 3 Access the IP settings window
Note: Be sure to write down the existing IP settings, so that they can be restored at the end of the lab. These include IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, and DNS servers. If the workstation is a DHCP client, it is not necessary to record this information.
Windows 95/98/Me users should do the following:
• Click on Start > Settings > Control Panel and then click the Network icon.
• Select the TCP/IP protocol icon that is associated with the NIC in this PC and click on Properties
• Click on the IP Address tab and the Gateway tab.
Windows NT/2000 users should do the following:
• Click on Start > Settings > Control Panel and then open the Network and Dial-up Connections folder.
• Click and open the Local Area Connection icon.
• Select the TCP/IP protocol icon that is associated with the NIC in this PC.
• Click on Properties and click on Use the following IP address
Windows XP users should do the following:
• Click on Start > Settings > Control Panel and then click the Network Connection icon.
• Select the Local Area Network Connection and click on Change settings of this connection
• Select the TCP/IP protocol icon that is associated with the NIC in this PC.
• Click on Properties and click on Use the following IP address
        See the example below:















Step 4 Configure TCP/IP settings for the two PCs
a.  Set the IP address information for each PC according to the information in the table.
b.  Note that the default gateway IP address is not required, since these computers are directly connected. The default gateway is only required on local area networks that are connected to a router.
Computer  IP Address  Subnet mask  Default Gateway
PC – A  192.168.1.1  255.255.255.0  Not Required
PC – B  192.168.1.2  255.255.255.0  Not Required
Step 5 Access the Command or MS-DOS prompt
a.  Use the Start menu to open the Command Prompt (MS-DOS-like) window:
Windows 95/98/Me users should do the following:
Start > Programs > MS-DOS Prompt
Windows NT/2000 users should do the following:
Start > Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt
Windows XP users should do the following:
Start > Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt



Step 6 Verify that the PCs can communicate
a.  Test connectivity from one PC to the other through the switch by pinging the IP address of the opposite computer. Use the following command at the command prompt.
C:>ping 192.168.1.1  (or 192.168.1.2)
b.  Look for results similar to those shown below.  If not, check the PC connections and TCP/IP settings for both PCs. What was the ping result?
Results could possibly be:  Sent=4  Received=4  Lost=0 (this is due to ARP)
Any other results probably indicate an error




Step 7 Confirm the TCP/IP network settings
Windows 95 / 98 / Me users should do the following:
a. Type the winipcfg command from the MS-DOS Prompt. Record the results
For computer A
IP Address : 192.168.1.1
Subnet mask : 255.255.255.0
Default getaway :0.0.0.0
Windows NT / 2000 / XP users should do the following:
b. Type the ipconfig command from the Command Prompt. Record the results.
For computer B
IP Address : 192.168.1.2
Subnet mask : 255.255.255.0
Default getaway :0.0.0.0

Step 8 Restore the PCs to their original IP settings, disconnect the equipment, and store the cables

tugas jarkom 2


Lab 5.1.13a Building a Hub-based Network
Objective
•Create a simple network with two PCs using a hub
•Identify the proper cable to connect the PCs to the hub
•Configure workstation IP address information
•Test connectivity using the ping command
Background / Preparation
This lab focuses on the ability to connect two PCs to create a simple hub-based Ethernet LAN using two workstations.  A hub is a networking concentration device sometimes referred to as a multiport repeater. Hubs are inexpensive and easy to install, but they permit collisions to occur.  They are appropriate for a small LAN with light traffic. In addition to the physical and data link connections, which are Layers 1 and 2, the computers must also be configured with the correct IP network settings, which is Layer 3, so that they can communicate. Since this lab uses a hub, a basic Category 5/5e UTP straight-through cable is needed to connect each PC to the hub. This is referred to as a patch cable or horizontal cabling, which is used to connect workstations and a typical LAN. Start this lab with the equipment turned off and with cabling disconnected. Work in teams of two with one person per PC. The following
resources will be required:
•Two workstations with an Ethernet 10/100 NIC installed
•Ethernet 10BaseT or Fast Ethernet hub
•Several Ethernet cables, which are straight-through and crossover, to choose from for connecting the two workstations
Step 1 Identify the proper Ethernet cable and connect the two PCs to the hub
a.  The connection between the two PCs and the hub will be accomplished using a Category 5 or 5e straight-through patch cable. Locate two cables that are long enough to reach from each PC to the hub. Attach one end to the NIC and the other end to a port on the hub. Be sure to examine the cable ends carefully and select only a straight-through cable.
b.  What kind of cable is required to connect from NIC to hub? Straight-trough
c.  What is the category rating of the cable? 5 or 5e
d.  What is the AWG wire size designation of the cable? 22 AWG
Step 2 Verify the physical connection
a.  Plug in and turn on the computers. To verify the computer connections, insure that the link lights on the both PC NICs and the hub interfaces are lit. Are all link lights lit? They should be otherwise troubleshoot.
Step 3 Access the IP settings window
Note: Be sure to write down the existing IP settings, so that they can be restored at the end of the lab. These include IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, and DNS servers. If the workstation is a DHCP client, it is not necessary to record this information.
Windows 95/98/Me users should do the following:
• Click on Start > Settings > Control Panel and then click the Network icon.
• Select the TCP/IP protocol icon that is associated with the NIC in this PC and click on Properties
• Click on the IP Address tab and the Gateway tab.
Windows NT/2000 users should do the following:
• Click on Start > Settings > Control Panel and then open the Network and Dial-up Connections folder.
• Click and open the Local Area Connection icon.
• Select the TCP/IP protocol icon that is associated with the NIC in this PC.
• Click on Properties and click on Use the following IP address
Windows XP users should do the following:
• Click on Start > Settings > Control Panel and then click the Network Connection icon.
• Select the Local Area Network Connection and click on Change settings of this connection
• Select the TCP/IP protocol icon that is associated with the NIC in this PC.
• Click on Properties and click on Use the following IP address
        See the example below:


Step 4 Configure TCP/IP settings for the two PCs
a.  Set the IP address information for each PC according to the information in the table.
b.  Note that the default gateway IP address is not required, since these computers are directly connected. The default gateway is only required on local area networks that are connected to a router.
Computer  IP Address  Subnet mask  Default Gateway
PC – A  192.168.1.1  255.255.255.0  Not Required
PC – B  192.168.1.2  255.255.255.0  Not Required
Step 5 Access the Command or MS-DOS prompt
a.  Use the Start menu to open the Command Prompt (MS-DOS-like) window:
Windows 95/98/Me users should do the following:
Start > Programs > MS-DOS Prompt
Windows NT/2000 users should do the following:
Start > Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt
Windows XP users should do the following:
Start > Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt



Step 6 Verify that the PCs can communicate
a.  Test connectivity from one PC to the other through the hub by pinging the IP address of the opposite computer. Use the following command at the command prompt.
C:>ping 192.168.1.1  (or 192.168.1.2)
b.  Look for results similar to those shown below.  If not, check the PC connections and TCP/IP settings for both PCs. What was the ping result?
Results could possibly be:  Sent=4  Received=4  Lost=0 (this is due to ARP)
Any other results probably indicate an error


Step 7 Confirm the TCP/IP network settings
Windows 95 / 98 / Me users should do the following:
a. Type the winipcfg command from the MS-DOS Prompt. Record the results
For computer A
IP Address : 192.168.1.1
Subnet mask : 255.255.255.0
Default getaway :0.0.0.0
Windows NT / 2000 / XP users should do the following:
b. Type the ipconfig command from the Command Prompt. Record the results.
For computer B
IP Address : 192.168.1.2
Subnet mask : 255.255.255.0
Default getaway :0.0.0.0

Step 8 Restore the PCs to their original IP settings, disconnect the equipment, and store the cables


Sabtu, 23 April 2011

jenis-jenis GAME


Jenis Game 

Jenis-jenis  game  dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi beberapa tipe antara lain adalah :
1.  Action  games, biasanya meliputi tantangan fisik, teka-teki (puzzle), balapan, dan beberapa konflik  lainnya. Dapat  juga meliputi masalah ekonomi sederhana, seperti mengumpulkan benda-benda.
2.  Real Time Strategy (RTS) adalah game yang melibatkan masalah strategi, taktik, dan logika. Contoh  game  jenis ini adalah Age of Empire, War Craft, dan sebagainya.
3.  Role Playing Games  (RPG), kebanyakan game jenis ini melibatkan masalah taktik, logika, dan eksplorasi atau penjelajahan. Dan juga kadang meliputi teka-teki dan masalah ekonomi  karena pada  game  ini biasanya melibatkan pengumpulan barang-barang rampasan dan menjualnya untuk mendapatkan senjata yang lebih baik. Contoh dari game ini adalah Final Fantasy, Ragnarok, Lord of The Rings, dan sebagainya.
4.  Real World Simulation, meliputi permainan olahraga dan simulasi masalah kendaraan termasuk kendaraan militer. Games ini kebanyakan melibatkan masalah fisik dan taktik, tetapi tidak masalah eksplorasi, ekonomi dan konseptual. Contohnya seperti adalah game Championship Manager.
5.  Construction and Management, seperti  game  Roller Coster Tycoon dan The Sims. Pada dasarnya adalah masalah ekonomi dan konseptual. Game ini jarang yang melibatkan konflik dan eksplorasi, dan hampir tidak pernah meliputi tantangan fisik.
6.  Adventure games, mengutamakan masalah eksplorasi dan pemecahan teka-teki. Namun terkadang meliputi masalah konseptual, dan tantangan fisik namun sangat jarang.
7.  Puzzle games,  ditujukan untuk memecahkan suatu masalah tertentu. Hampir semua  semua tantangan disini menyangkut masalah logika yang biasanya dibatasi oleh waktu.
8.  Slide scrolling games, pada jenis  game  ini karakter dapat bergerak ke samping diikuti dengan gerakan background. Contoh game tipe seperti ini adalah Super Mario, Metal Slug, dan sebagainya.

elemen GAME


 Elemen Game
Didalam sebuah game  terdapat beberapa elemen-elemen yang akan membentuk sebuah game itu sendiri yaitu :
1.  Rules (aturan-aturan)
Sebuah game mengambil tempat atau seting di dunia buatan yang diatur oleh aturan-aturan (rules). Rules istilah yang menentukan aksi dan gerakan pemain dalam sebuah game. Pada game komputer, kebanyakan rules ini tersembunyi. Karena pemain berinteraksi dengan game hanya melalui suatu alat masukan atau yang biasanya disebut dengan  input device  dan mesin  mengabaikan input yang tidak sesuai tampa harus memberitahu aturan kepada pemain.
2.  Victory condition  (kondisi menang) dan  Lose condition  (kondisi kalah).
Karena ada kondisi kemenangan, maka game juga memiliki kondisi kekalahan (lose condition).
3.  Setting (seting)
Sebuah game mengambil tempat pada suatu dunia atau setting tertentu. Contohnya pada permainan bola yang berseting pada lapangan dan batasan-batasan tertentu.
4.  Interaction model (model interaksi)
Yaitu cara pemain berinteraksi dengan  game  dan melakukan aksi untuk menghadapi tantangan dari  game  tersebut. Model interaksi yang biasa dipakai pada  game  komputer ada dua jenis. Yang pertama, jika pemain mengendalikan tokoh tunggal yang mempresentasikan dirinya dalam game dan tokoh tersebut dapat mempengaruhi dunia sekitarnya, maka tokoh tersebut disebut sebagai  avatar-nya. Sedangkan yang kedua adalah jikapemain memiliki kemampuan untuk melihat berbagai bagaian dari gameworld   (dunia permainan)dan melakukan aksi pada banyak tempat maka pemain tersebut  sebagai  omnipresent. Namun hal ini dapat diterapkan pada tokoh atau unit yang menjadi miliknya, dengan memberikan perintah kepada mereka satu-persatu. Salah satu contoh game yang termasuk jenis ini adalah catur.
5.  Perspective (sudut pandang)
Yaitu mnjelaskan bagaimana pemain melihat gameworld dari suatu game pada layar.
6.  Role (peran)
Yaitu  tokoh yang dimainkan oleh pemain dalam suatu  game. Dengan adanya peran ini maka pemain akan lebih mudah untuk memahami apa yang sebenarnya ingin dicapai dan aturan apa yang yang dimainkan. Sebagai contoh, pada permainan monopoli kita berperan sebagai pialang perumahan. Pada  game  Championship  Manager kita  berperan sebagai manager sebuah tim sepak bola. Pada seri  game  Sierra Online’s Police Quest pemain berperan sebagai polisi dan memiliki aturan-aturan seperti polisi sungguhan, seperti tidak boleh menembak sembarang sasaran, harus menaati peraturan tentang kapan diperbolehkannya menembak.
7.  Mode
Beberapa  game,  seperti catur, berlaku sama dari awal sampai akhir. Pemain selalu ingin mencapai atau menyelesaikan hal yang sama dengan cara yang berbeda pula. Namun ada juga game yang memiliki mode yang nyata, yaitu  dimana  gameplay-nya berubah dari satu mode ke mode lainnya. Contohnya seperti pada game perang, yaitu sebelum pemain turun ke medan perang biasanya pemain diberi  briefing  terlebih dahulu, lalu pindah ke mode pemilihan senjata, dan terakhir adalah perang itu sendiri.
8.  Structure (struktur)
Hubungan antara mode dan aturan menentukan kapan dan mengapa game berubah secara bersama-sama membentuk suatu permainan.
9.  Realism (realisme)
Game menggambarkan sebuah dunia, bahkan mungkin dunia yang khayal. Sebuah  game  yang menerapkan akal sehat dan logika  pada aturan permainannya dapat dikatakan sebagai  game  yang realistis. Contoh dari game  ini adalah Microsoft Flight Simulator,  game  ini mencoba mengimplementasikan  bagiamana mensimulasikan pesawat terbang yang sesungguhnya.
10.  Story (cerita)
Game computer merupakan perpaduan antara media pasif,  pasif  seperti televisi dan film dan media aktif, dongeng, non pasif seperti permainan poker dan domino. Beberapa game komputer, seperti tetris tidaklah mempunyai cerita. Lain halnya  dengan  seri  Metal Gear Solid, dan  Final Fantasy. Beberapa game memiliki alur cerita  yang linear atau hanya  satu jalan cerita dan bersifat non  interaktif, namun ada juga  yang bersifat interaktifdimana cerita  akan berbeda atau bercabang tergantung pada pilihan atau tindakan  yang diambil pemain.  Sehingga cerita akhir (ending) yang didapat akan berbeda-beda  pula, atau biasanya disebut dengan multiple ending.